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The phrase “lines of code” (LOC) is a metric generally used to evaluate a software program or codebase according to its size. It is a general identifier taken by adding up the number of lines of code used to write a program. LOC is used in various ways to assess a project, and there is a debate on how effective this measurement is.


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I realize there's no definitely "right" answer to this question, but when people talk about lines of code, what do they mean?
In C++ for example, do you count blank lines?
I know some people use LoC as a productivity measure, and I'm wondering if there is a standard convention here.
Also, I think there's a way to get various compilers to count lines of code - is there a standard convention there?
No, there is no standard convention, and every tool that counts them will be slightly different.
Have a look at theespecially the "" section: There are two major types of SLOC measures: physical SLOC and logical SLOC.
Specific definitions of these two measures vary, but the most common definition of physical SLOC is a count of lines in the text of the program's source code including comment lines.
Blank lines code lines software also included unless the lines of code in a section consists of more than 25% blank lines.
In this case blank lines in excess of 25% are not counted toward lines of code.
Logical SLOC measures attempt to measure the number of "statements", but their specific definitions are tied to specific computer languages one simple logical SLOC measure for C-like programming languages is the number of statement-terminating semicolons.
It is much easier to create tools that measure physical SLOC, and physical SLOC definitions are easier to explain.
However, physical SLOC measures are sensitive to logically irrelevant formatting and style conventions, while logical SLOC is less sensitive to formatting and style conventions.
Unfortunately, SLOC measures are often stated without giving their definition, and logical SLOC can often be significantly different from physical SLOC.
Being able to remove hundreds of lines of code and wind up with something that's just as functional, and more maintainable, is a wonderful please click for source />That being said, unless you have very strict coding guidelines in your team, physical lines of code is a useless statistic.
Logical lines of code is still useless, but as least it's not dangerously misleading.
If you use LOC as a measure of productivity, you will suddenly find your programmers writing much more verbosely to "game the system".
It's a stupid measure, and only stupid people use it for anything more than bragging rights.
I particularly like the 25% allowance for blank lines in the Wikipedia defn quote elsewhere.
That includes comments, but excludes whitespace.
If you're using this as a productivity metric, make sure code lines software making reasonable comparisons.
A line of C++ isn't the same free software slot games for pc a line of Ruby.
Bill, you've never done APL?
You haven't lived until you've done it on an IBM Selectric converted to a terminal.
Many of the operators required backspacing and overstriking.
Comments in my code at least often contain commented-out lines that I haven't decided to necessarily erase yet and therefore are still part of the work, if not the actual program.
Of course it depends what your purpose in measuring it is.
If it takes more than that to figure out what I'm saying on that line, the line's too long.
LOC is a notoriously ambiguous metric.
For a detailed comparison, it's only valid when comparing code that's been written in the same language, with the same style, by the same team.
However, it does provide a certain complexity notion when looked at in an order-of-magnitude idea.
A 10000-line program is much more complex than a 100-line program.
The advantage of LOC is that wc -l returns it, and there's no real fancyness involved in understanding or calculating it, unlike many other software metrics.
There's no right answer.
For informal estimates, I use wc -l.
If I needed to measure something rigorously, I would measure executable statements.
Pretty code lines software, anything with a statement terminator usually semicolonor ending with a block.
For compound statements, I'd count each substatement.
As others have said, what matters most is that your count is consistent.
It also matters what you're using this for.
If you just want to let a potential new hire know how big your project is, use wc -l.
If you're wanting to do planning and estimating, then you might want to get more formal.
You should not in any circumstances be using LOC to base programmer compensation on.
You should be thinking of "lines of code spent", not "lines of code produced".
Things should be as simple as possible, so creating a positive benchmark based on quantity of lines is encouraging bad code.
Furthermore, some things that are very difficult end up being solved with very little code, and some things that are very easy boilerplate code like getters and setters for example can add a lot of lines in very little time.
As for the original question, if I was going to count lines, I'd include every line other than consecutive blank click the following article />I'd include comments as well, since they are hopefully useful documentation.
The notion of LOC is a attempt to quantify a volume of code.
As pointed out in other answers, it code lines software matter what you specifically call a line of code as long as you are consistent.
Intuitively, it seems that a 10 line program smaller than an 100 line program which is smaller than a 1000 line program and so on.
You would expect that it takes less time to create, deubg, and maintain a 100 line program than a 1000 line program.
Informally at least, you can use LOC to give a rough feel for the amount of work required to create, debug, and maintain a program of a certain size.
Of course, there are places where this doesn't hold up.
For example, a complex algorithm rendered in 1000 lines code lines software be much harder to develop than, say, a simple database program that consumes 2500 lines.
So, LOC is a coarse-grained measure of code volume that enables managers to get a reasonable understading of the size of a problem.
You just have to look at it but do not only count on it.
LOC is growing massively on start of a project and it decreases often after reviews ; I think of it as a single processable statement.
I use wc -l for a quick estimate of the complexity of a workspace.
However, as a productivity metric LOC is THE WORST.
I generally consider it a very productive day if my if LOC count goes DOWN.
I know some people use LoC as a productivity measure Could you please tell me who they are so I don't accidentally work with or even worse, for them?
If I can implement in 1400 lines using Haskell what I could also implement in 2800 lines using C, am I more productive in C or Haskell?
Which is going to take longer time?
Which is going to have more bugs hint: it's linear in the LOC count?
A programmer's worth is how much his code changes including from or to the empty string increases the number on your bottom line.
I know of no good way to measure or approximate that.
But I know that any reasonably measurable metric can be gamed and doesn't reflect what you really want.
So don't use it.
That being said, how do you count LOCs?
Simple, use wc -l.
Why is that the right tool?
Well, you probably don't care about any particular number, but about general total trends going up or down, and by how muchabout individual trends going up or down, changing direction how fast.
The differences between what the tools measure are probably not interesting.
Unless you have evidence that the number spit out by your tool and only that tool correlates with something interesting, use it as a rough ballpark figure; anything other than monotonicity should be taken with not only a grain but a bucketful of salt.
NET world there seems to be a global agreement that a line of code LoC is a debugging sequence point.
A sequence point is a unit of debugging, it is the code portion highlighted in dark-red when putting a break point.
With sequence point we can talk of logical LoC, and this metric can be compared across tabasco slot machine software />The logical LoC code metric is supported by most.
NET tools including VisualStudio code metric, NDepend or NCover.
A 8 LoC method beginning and ending brackets sequence points are not taken account : Contrary to physical LoC meaning just counting the number of line in a source file the logical LoC has the immense advantage to not be dependent on coding style.
Coding style, we all agree on that, can make the physical LoC counting varying from an order of magnitude from one developer to another one.
I wrote a more detailed blog post on the topic: Using LOC to measure a programmers performance is like judging the quality of a painting by its size.
LOC's only "value" as far as I'm concerned is to impress your customers and scare your competition.
That said, I would think that the number of compiled instructions would code lines software the least ambiguous.
Still, bad programmers have the advantage in that they tend to write unnecessarily verbose code.
I recall once replacing 800+ lines of really bad code with 28 lines.
Does that make me a slacker?
Any project manager who uses LOC as a primary performance metric is an idiot who deserves bad programmers.
Thanks for contributing an answer to Stack Overflow!
Provide details and share your research!
To learn more, see our.
Browse other questions tagged or.

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Project Code Meter Source lines of code [article cited from Wikipedia] Source lines of code (SLOC or LOC) is a software metric used to measure the size of a software program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code.


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This article's does not adequately code lines software points of its contents.
Please consider expanding the lead to of all important aspects of the article.
Please discuss this issue on the article's.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: — · · · · February 2010 This article may contain, or examples.
Please by adding more descriptive text and removing.
See Wikipedia's for further suggestions.
May 2012 Source lines of code SLOCalso known as lines of code LOCis a used to measure the size of a by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's.
SLOC is typically used to predict the amount of effort that will be required to develop a program, as well as to estimate or once the software is produced.
Using lines of code to compare a 10,000-line project to a 100,000-line project is far more useful than when comparing a 20,000-line project with a 21,000-line project.
While it is debatable exactly how to measure lines of code, discrepancies of an order of magnitude can be clear indicators of software complexity or.
There are two major types of SLOC measures: physical SLOC LOC and logical SLOC LLOC.
Specific definitions of these two measures vary, but the most common definition of physical SLOC is a count of lines in the text of the program's source code excluding comment lines.
Logical SLOC attempts to measure the number of executable "statements", but their specific definitions are tied to specific computer languages one simple logical SLOC measure for -like is the number of statement-terminating semicolons.
It is much easier to create tools that measure physical SLOC, and physical SLOC definitions are easier to explain.
However, physical SLOC measures are sensitive to logically irrelevant formatting and style conventions, while logical SLOC is less sensitive to formatting and consider, tabasco slot machine software have conventions.
However, SLOC measures are often stated without giving their definition, and logical SLOC can often be significantly different from physical SLOC.
Even the "logical" and "physical" SLOC values can have a large number of varying definitions.
For example, most software systems reuse code, and determining which if any reused code to include is important when reporting code lines software measure.
These languages were developed at the time when were the main form of data entry for programming.
One punched card usually represented one line of code.
It was one discrete object that was easily counted.
It was the visible output of the programmer, so it made sense to managers to count lines of code as a measurement of a programmer's productivity, even referring to such as "".
Today, the most commonly used computer languages allow a lot more leeway for formatting.
Text lines are no longer limited to 80 or 96 columns, and one line of text no longer necessarily corresponds to one line https://slots-bonus-money.website/software/deposit-online-software.html code.
Such statements should be.
September 2013 SLOC measures are somewhat controversial, particularly in the way that they are sometimes misused.
Thus, SLOC can be very effective in estimating effort.
However, functionality is less well correlated with SLOC: skilled developers may be able to develop the same functionality with far less code, so one program with fewer SLOC may exhibit more functionality than another similar code lines software />In particular, SLOC is a poor productivity measure of individuals, since a developer can develop only a few lines and yet be far more productive in terms of functionality than a developer who ends up creating more lines and generally spending more effort.
Good developers may merge multiple code modules into a single module, improving the system yet appearing to have negative productivity because they remove code.
Also, especially skilled developers tend to be assigned the most difficult tasks, and thus may sometimes appear less "productive" than other developers on a task by this measure.
Furthermore, inexperienced developers often resort towhich is highly discouraged as it is more bug-prone and costly to maintain, but it results in higher SLOC.
SLOC is particularly ineffective at comparing programs written in different languages unless adjustment factors are applied to normalize languages.
Various balance brevity and clarity in different ways; as an extreme example, most would require hundreds of lines of code to perform the same task as a few characters in.
The following example shows a comparison of a written inand the same program written in - a language known for being particularly verbose.
C COBOL identification division.
Lines of code: 4 excluding whitespace Lines of code: 6 excluding whitespace Another increasingly common problem in comparing SLOC metrics is the difference between auto-generated and hand-written code.
Modern software tools often have the capability to auto-generate enormous amounts of code with a few clicks of a mouse.
For instance, automatically generate all the source code for a simply by dragging an icon onto a workspace.
The work involved in creating this code cannot reasonably be compared to the work necessary to write a device driver, for instance.
By the same token, a hand-coded custom GUI class could easily be more demanding than a simple device driver; hence the shortcoming of this metric.
There are several cost, schedule, and effort estimation models which use SLOC as an input parameter, including the widely used Constructive Cost Model series of models by et al.
While these models have shown good predictive power, they are only as good as the estimates particularly the SLOC estimates fed to them.
Wheeler studied the distribution of theand reported that Red Hat Linux version 7.
A similar study was later made of version 2.
Later runs of the tools used report that the following release of Debian had 104 million SLOC, and as of year 2005the newest release is going to include over 213 million SLOC.
Year Operating system SLOC million 2000 Debian 2.
Please by the claims made and adding.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
Small utilities may be developed for counting the LOC in a program.
However, a logical code counting utility developed for a specific language cannot be used for other languages due to the syntactical and structural differences among languages.
Physical LOC counters, however, have been produced which count dozens of languages.
This way, LOC comes in handy to express the size of software among programmers with low levels of experience.
That is, skilled developers may be able to develop the same functionality with far less code, so one program with less LOC may exhibit more functionality than another similar program.
In particular, LOC is a poor productivity measure of individuals, because a developer who develops only a few lines may still be more productive than a developer creating more lines of code — even more: some good refactoring like "extract method" to get rid of and keep it clean will mostly reduce the lines of code.
Hence, number of lines of code differs from person to person.
An experienced developer may implement certain functionality in fewer lines of code than another developer of relatively less experience does, though they use the same language.
One of the applications is written in C++ and the other application written in a language like COBOL.
The number code lines software function points would be exactly the same, but aspects of the application would be different.
The lines of code needed to develop the application would certainly not be the same.
As a consequence, the amount of effort required to develop the application would be different hours per function point.
Unlike lines of code, the number of function points will remain constant.
For example, code lines software of writing a program to create a window and draw a button, a user with a GUI tool can use drag-and-drop and other mouse operations to place components on a workspace.
Code that is automatically generated by a GUI tool is not usually taken into consideration when using LOC methods of measurement.
This results in variation between languages; the same task that can be done in a single line of code or no code at all in one language may require several lines of code in another.
Very often, a number of languages are employed depending on the complexity and requirements.
Tracking and reporting of productivity and defect rates poses a serious problem in this case, since defects cannot be attributed to a particular language subsequent to code lines software of the system.
Function point stands out to be the best measure of size in this case.
Are data declarations included?
software slot machine iphone 4 happens if a statement extends over several lines?
Though organizations like SEI and IEEE have published some guidelines in an attempt to standardize counting, it is difficult to put these into practice especially in the face of newer and https://slots-bonus-money.website/software/c-code-software.html languages being introduced every year.
The more management is focusing on lines of code, the more incentive the programmer has to expand his code with unneeded complexity.
This is undesirable, since increased complexity can lead to increased cost of maintenance and increased effort required for bug fixing.
In the documentaryMicrosoft executive criticized the use of counting lines of code: In IBM there's a religion in software that says you have to count K-LOCs, and a K-LOC is a thousand lines of code.
How big a project is it?
Oh, it's sort of a 10K-LOC project.
This is a 20K-LOCer.
And this is 50K-LOCs.
And IBM wanted to sort of make it the religion about how we got paid.
How much money we made offhow much they did.
How many K-LOCs did you do?
And we kept trying to convince them — hey, if we have — a developer's got a good idea and he can get something done in 4K-LOCs instead of 20K-LOCs, should we make less money?
Because he's made something smaller and faster, less K-LOC.
K-LOCs, K-LOCs, that's the methodology.
Anyway, that always makes my back just crinkle up at the thought of the whole thing.
This in turn cites Vincent Maraia's The Build Master as the source of the information.
Ortuño Pérez, Pedro de las Heras Quirós, José Centeno González, and Vicente Matellán Olivera.
Archived from on 2008-05-03.
Archived from on 2013-03-14.
The number is an estimate published on 2012-02-13, using the code base which would become Debian 7.
Archived from on 2014-02-23.
Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown.
Modern Operating Systems 2nd ed.
Archived from on 2007-01-27.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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Of course, every engineer knows that "lines of code" is a silly measure, and besides, the lines of code we are counting here are much less complex than the code written by professional software engineers. No software engineer measures the value or their work in lines of code.


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This article's does not adequately key points of its contents.
Please consider expanding the lead to of all important aspects of the article.
Please discuss this issue on the article's.
April 2012 This article needs additional citations for.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: — · · · · February 2010 This article may contain, or examples.
Please by adding more descriptive text and removing.
See Wikipedia's for further suggestions.
May 2012 Source lines of code SLOCalso known as lines of code LOCis a used to measure the size of a by counting the number of lines in the money for mac software of the program's.
SLOC is typically used to predict the amount of effort that will be required to develop a program, as well as to estimate or once the software is produced.
Using lines of code to compare a 10,000-line project to a 100,000-line project is far more useful than when comparing a 20,000-line project with a 21,000-line project.
While it is debatable exactly how to measure lines of code, discrepancies of an order of magnitude can be clear indicators of software complexity or.
There are two major types of SLOC measures: physical SLOC LOC and logical SLOC LLOC.
Specific definitions of these two measures vary, but the most common definition of physical SLOC is a count of lines in the text of the program's source code excluding comment lines.
Logical SLOC attempts to measure the number of executable "statements", but their specific definitions are tied to specific computer languages one simple logical SLOC measure for -like is the number of statement-terminating semicolons.
It is much easier to create tools that measure physical SLOC, and physical SLOC definitions are easier to explain.
However, physical SLOC measures are sensitive to logically irrelevant formatting and style conventions, while logical SLOC is less sensitive to formatting and style conventions.
However, SLOC measures are often stated without giving their definition, and logical SLOC can often be significantly different from physical SLOC.
Even the "logical" and "physical" SLOC values can have a large number of varying definitions.
For example, most software systems reuse code, and determining which if any reused code to include is important when reporting a measure.
These languages were developed at the time when were the main form of data entry for programming.
One punched card usually represented one line of code.
It was one discrete object that was easily counted.
It was the visible output of the programmer, so it made sense to managers to count lines of code as a measurement of a programmer's productivity, even referring to such as "".
Today, the most commonly used computer languages allow a lot more leeway for formatting.
Text lines are no longer limited to 80 or 96 columns, and one line of text no longer necessarily corresponds to one line of code.
Such code lines software should be.
September 2013 SLOC measures are somewhat controversial, particularly in the way that they are sometimes misused.
Thus, SLOC can be very effective in remarkable, slot 3d software consider effort.
However, functionality is less well correlated with SLOC: skilled developers may be able to develop the same functionality with far less code, so one program https://slots-bonus-money.website/software/software-slot-machine-iphone-4.html fewer SLOC may exhibit more functionality than another similar program.
In particular, SLOC is a poor productivity measure of individuals, since a developer can develop only a few lines and yet be far more productive in terms of functionality than a developer who ends up creating more lines and generally spending more effort.
Good developers may merge multiple code modules into a single module, improving the system yet appearing to have negative productivity because they remove code.
Also, especially skilled read article tend to be assigned the most difficult tasks, and thus may sometimes appear less "productive" than other developers on a task by this measure.
Furthermore, inexperienced developers often resort towhich is highly discouraged as it is more bug-prone and costly to maintain, but it results in higher SLOC.
SLOC is particularly ineffective at comparing programs written in different languages unless adjustment factors are applied to normalize languages.
Various balance brevity and clarity in different ways; as an extreme example, most would require hundreds of lines of code to perform the same task as a few characters in.
The following example shows a comparison of a written inand the same program written in - a language known for being particularly verbose.
C COBOL identification division.
Lines of code: 4 excluding code lines software Lines of code: 6 excluding whitespace Another increasingly common problem in comparing SLOC metrics is the difference between auto-generated and hand-written code.
Modern software tools often have the capability to auto-generate enormous amounts of code with a few clicks of a mouse.
For instance, automatically generate all the source code for a simply by dragging an icon onto a workspace.
The work involved in creating this code cannot reasonably be compared to the work necessary to write a device driver, for instance.
By the same token, a hand-coded custom GUI class could easily be more demanding than a simple device driver; hence the shortcoming of this metric.
There are several cost, schedule, and effort estimation models which use SLOC as an input parameter, including the widely used Constructive Cost Model series of models by et al.
While these models have shown good predictive power, they are only as good as the estimates particularly the SLOC estimates fed to them.
Wheeler studied the distribution of theand reported that Red Hat Linux version 7.
A similar study was later made of version 2.
Later runs of the tools used report that the following release of Debian had 104 million SLOC, and as of year 2005the newest release is going to include over 213 million SLOC.
Year Operating system SLOC million 2000 Debian 2.
Please by the claims made and adding.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
Small utilities may be developed for counting the LOC in a program.
However, a logical code counting utility developed for a specific language cannot be used for other languages due to the syntactical and structural differences among languages.
Physical LOC counters, however, have been produced which count dozens of languages.
This way, LOC comes in handy to express the size of software among programmers with low levels of experience.
That is, skilled developers may be able to develop the same functionality with far less code, so one program with less LOC may exhibit more functionality than another similar program.
In particular, LOC is a poor productivity measure of individuals, because a developer who develops only a few lines may still be more productive than a developer creating more lines of code — even more: some good refactoring like "extract method" to get rid of and keep it clean will mostly reduce the lines of code.
Hence, number of lines of code differs from person article source person.
An experienced developer may implement certain functionality in fewer lines of code than another developer of relatively less experience does, though they use the same language.
One of the applications is written in C++ and the other application written in a language like COBOL.
The number of function points would be exactly the same, but aspects of the application would be different.
The lines of code needed to develop the application would certainly not be the same.
As a consequence, the amount of effort required to develop the application code lines software be different hours per function point.
Unlike lines of code, the number of function points will remain constant.
For example, instead of writing a program to create a window and draw a button, a user with a GUI tool can use drag-and-drop and other mouse operations to place components on a workspace.
Code that is automatically generated by a GUI tool is not usually taken into consideration when using LOC methods of measurement.
This results in variation between languages; the same task that can be done in a single line of code or no code at all in one language may require several lines of code in another.
Very often, a number of languages are employed depending on the complexity and requirements.
Function point stands out to be the best measure of size in this case.
Are data declarations included?
What happens if a statement extends over several lines?
Though organizations like SEI and IEEE have published some guidelines in an attempt to standardize counting, it is difficult to put these into practice especially in the face of newer and newer languages being introduced every year.
The more management is focusing on lines of code, the more incentive the programmer has to expand his code with unneeded complexity.
This is undesirable, since increased complexity can lead to increased cost code lines software maintenance and increased effort required for bug fixing.
In the documentaryMicrosoft executive criticized the use of counting lines of code: In IBM there's a religion in software that says you have to count K-LOCs, and a K-LOC is a thousand lines of code.
How big a project is it?
Oh, it's sort of a 10K-LOC project.
This is a 20K-LOCer.
And this is 50K-LOCs.
And IBM wanted to sort of make it the religion about how we got paid.
How much money we made offhow much they did.
How many K-LOCs did you do?
And we kept trying to convince them — hey, if we have — a developer's got a good idea and he can get something done in 4K-LOCs check this out of 20K-LOCs, should we make less money?
Because he's made something smaller and faster, less K-LOC.
K-LOCs, K-LOCs, that's the methodology.
Anyway, that always makes my back just crinkle up more info the thought of the whole thing.
This in turn cites Vincent Maraia's The Build Master as the source of the information.
Ortuño Pérez, Pedro de las Heras Quirós, José Centeno González, and Vicente Matellán Olivera.
Archived from on 2008-05-03.
Archived from on 2013-03-14.
The number is an estimate published on 2012-02-13, using the code base which would become Debian 7.
Archived from on 2014-02-23.
Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown.
Modern Operating Systems 2nd ed.
Archived from on 2007-01-27.
By using this site, you agree to the and.

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This Car Runs on Code It takes dozens of microprocessors running 100 million lines of code to get a premium car out of the driveway, and this software is only going to get more complex


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When, if ever, is "number of lines of code" a useful metric? - Stack Overflow
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The phrase “lines of code” (LOC) is a metric generally used to evaluate a software program or codebase according to its size. It is a general identifier taken by adding up the number of lines of code used to write a program. LOC is used in various ways to assess a project, and there is a debate on how effective this measurement is.


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World will need to secure 111 billion lines of new software code in 2017 A little known statistic is arguably one of the most important for CISOs and IT security pros to take note of as they head.


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I have worked on some AAA games and have contributed to their source code. These games were mostly on Nintendo DS, DSi, Wii, iOS and Android. I have seen PS3 games' code too, but couldn't get a chance to work on them.


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When, if ever, is "number of lines of code" a useful metric? - Stack Overflow
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This article's does not adequately key points of its contents.
Please consider expanding the lead to of all important aspects of the article.
Please discuss this issue on the article's.
April 2012 This article needs additional citations for.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Please by adding more descriptive text and removing.
See Wikipedia's for further suggestions.
May 2012 Source lines of code SLOCalso known as lines of code LOCis a used to measure the size of a by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's.
SLOC is typically used to predict the amount of effort that will be required to develop a program, as well as to estimate or once the software is produced.
Using lines of code to compare a 10,000-line project to a 100,000-line project is far more useful than when comparing a 20,000-line project with a 21,000-line project.
While it is debatable exactly how to measure lines of code, discrepancies of an order of magnitude can be clear indicators of software complexity or.
There are two major types of SLOC measures: physical SLOC Code lines software and logical SLOC Source />Specific definitions of these two measures vary, but the most common definition of physical SLOC is a count of lines in the text of the program's source code excluding comment lines.
Logical SLOC attempts to measure the number of executable "statements", but their specific definitions are tied to specific computer languages one simple logical SLOC measure for -like is the number of statement-terminating semicolons.
It is much easier to create tools that measure physical SLOC, and physical SLOC definitions are easier to explain.
However, physical SLOC measures are sensitive to logically irrelevant formatting and style conventions, while logical SLOC is less sensitive to formatting and style conventions.
However, SLOC measures are often stated without giving their definition, and logical SLOC can often be significantly different from physical SLOC.
Even the "logical" and "physical" SLOC values can have a large number of varying definitions.
For example, most software systems reuse code, and determining which if any reused code to include is important when reporting a measure.
These languages were developed at the time when were the main form of data entry for programming.
One punched card usually represented one line of code.
It was one discrete object that was easily counted.
It was the visible output of the programmer, so it made sense to managers to count lines of code as a measurement of a programmer's productivity, even referring to such as "".
Today, the most commonly used computer languages allow a lot more leeway for formatting.
Text lines are no longer limited to 80 or 96 columns, and one line of text no longer necessarily corresponds to one line of code.
Such statements should be.
September 2013 SLOC measures are somewhat controversial, particularly in the way that they are sometimes misused.
Thus, SLOC can be very effective in estimating effort.
However, functionality is less well correlated with SLOC: skilled developers may be able to develop the same functionality with far less code, so one program with fewer SLOC may exhibit more functionality than another similar program.
In particular, SLOC is a poor productivity measure of individuals, since a developer can develop only a few lines and yet be far more productive in terms of functionality than a developer who ends up creating more lines and generally spending more effort.
Good developers may merge multiple code modules into a single module, improving the system yet appearing to have negative productivity because they remove code.
Also, especially skilled developers tend to be assigned the most difficult tasks, and thus may sometimes appear less "productive" than other developers on a task by this measure.
Furthermore, inexperienced developers often resort towhich is code lines software discouraged as it is more bug-prone and costly to maintain, but it results in higher SLOC.
SLOC is particularly ineffective at comparing programs written in different languages unless adjustment factors are applied to normalize languages.
Various balance brevity and clarity in different ways; as an extreme example, most would require hundreds of lines of code to go here the same task as a few characters in.
The following example shows a comparison of a written inand the same program written in - a language known for being particularly verbose.
C COBOL identification division.
Lines of code: 4 excluding whitespace Lines of code: 6 excluding whitespace Another increasingly common problem in comparing SLOC metrics is the difference between auto-generated and hand-written code.
Modern software tools often have the capability to auto-generate enormous amounts of code with a few clicks of a mouse.
For instance, automatically generate all the source code for a simply by dragging an icon onto a workspace.
The work involved in creating this code cannot reasonably be compared to the work necessary to write a device driver, for instance.
By the same code lines software, a hand-coded custom GUI class could easily be more demanding than a simple device driver; hence the shortcoming of this metric.
There are several cost, schedule, and effort estimation models which use SLOC as an input parameter, including the widely used Constructive Cost Model series of models by et al.
While these models have shown good predictive power, they are only as good as the estimates particularly the SLOC estimates fed to them.
Wheeler studied the distribution of theand reported that Red Hat Linux version 7.
A similar study was later made of version 2.
Later runs of the tools used report that the following release of Debian had 104 million SLOC, and as of year 2005the newest release is going to include over 213 million SLOC.
Year Operating system SLOC million 2000 Debian 2.
Please by the claims made and adding.
Statements consisting only of original click to see more should be removed.
the software program code have utilities may be developed for counting the LOC in a program.
However, a logical code counting utility developed for a specific language cannot be used for other languages due to click here syntactical and click the following article differences among languages.
Physical LOC counters, however, have been produced which count dozens of languages.
This way, LOC comes in handy to express the size of software among programmers with low levels of experience.
That is, skilled developers may be able to develop the same functionality with far less code, so one program with less LOC may exhibit more functionality than another similar program.
In particular, LOC is a poor productivity measure of individuals, because a developer who develops only a few lines may still be more productive than a developer creating more lines of code — even more: some good refactoring like "extract method" to get rid of and keep it clean will mostly reduce the lines of code.
Hence, number of lines of code differs from person to person.
An experienced developer may implement certain functionality in fewer lines of code than another developer of relatively less experience does, though they use the same language.
One of the applications is written in C++ and the other application written in a language like COBOL.
The number of function points would be exactly the same, but aspects of the application would be different.
The lines of code needed to develop the application would certainly not be the same.
As a consequence, the amount of effort required to develop the application would be different hours per function point.
Unlike lines of code, the number of function points will remain constant.
For example, instead of writing a program to create a window and draw a button, a user with a GUI tool can use drag-and-drop and other mouse operations to place components on a workspace.
Code that is automatically generated by a GUI tool is not usually taken into consideration when using LOC methods of measurement.
This results in variation between languages; the same task that can be done in a single line of code or no code at all in one language may require several lines of code in another.
Very often, a number of languages are employed depending on the complexity and requirements.
Tracking and reporting of productivity and defect rates poses a serious problem in this case, since defects cannot be attributed to a particular language subsequent to integration of the system.
Function point stands out to be the best measure of size in this case.
Are data declarations included?
What happens if a statement extends over several lines?
The more management is focusing on lines of code, the more incentive the programmer has to expand his code with unneeded complexity.
This is undesirable, since increased complexity can lead to increased cost of maintenance and increased effort required for bug fixing.
In the documentaryMicrosoft executive criticized the use of counting lines of code: In IBM there's a religion in software that says you have to count K-LOCs, and a K-LOC is a thousand lines of code.
How big a project is it?
Oh, it's sort of a 10K-LOC check this out />This is a 20K-LOCer.
And this is 50K-LOCs.
And IBM wanted to sort of make it the religion about how we got paid.
How much money we made offhow much they did.
How many K-LOCs did you do?
And we kept trying to convince them — hey, if we have — a developer's got a good idea and he can get something done in 4K-LOCs instead of 20K-LOCs, should we make less money?
Because he's made something smaller and faster, less K-LOC.
K-LOCs, K-LOCs, that's the methodology.
Anyway, that always makes my back just crinkle up at the thought of the whole thing.
This in turn cites Vincent Maraia's The Build Master as the source of the information.
Ortuño Pérez, Pedro de las Heras Quirós, José Centeno González, and Vicente Matellán Olivera.
Archived from on 2008-05-03.
Archived from on 2013-03-14.
The number is an estimate published on 2012-02-13, using the code base which would become Debian 7.
Archived from on 2014-02-23.
Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown.
Modern Operating Systems 2nd ed.
Archived from on 2007-01-27.
By using this site, you agree to the and.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of thea non-profit organization.

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The phrase “lines of code” (LOC) is a metric generally used to evaluate a software program or codebase according to its size. It is a general identifier taken by adding up the number of lines of code used to write a program. LOC is used in various ways to assess a project, and there is a debate on how effective this measurement is.


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When, if ever, is "number of lines of code" a useful metric? - Stack Overflow
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Source lines of code (SLOC), also known as lines of code (LOC), is a software metric used to measure the size of a computer program by counting the number of lines in the text of the program's source code.


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It's a terrible metric, but as other people have noted, it gives you a (very) rough idea of the overall complexity of a system. If you're comparing two projects, A and B, and A is 10,000 lines of code, and B is 20,000, that doesn't tell you much - project B could be excessively verbose, or A could be super-compressed.


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